Schumann Piano Quintet in E flat major Op.44
Before Schumann wrote this piano quintet, Schubert and Hummel composed piano quintets for Violin, Viola, Cello, Contrabass and Piano. Those quintets would be written for salon music. After Schumann’s success on this new Piano Quintet by string quartet + piano, many composers found the high potential of this new style. Major works by this style were written by Brahms, Dvorak, Franck, and Faure.
When Robert and Clara Schumann visited Bremen and Ortenburg in February, 1842 for their concert tour. Throughout the tour it was not unbearable for Robert that Clara was always highly applauded but he was not so much. He was uncomfortable with the situation and decided to part with Clara and returned Leipzig alone on March 12. Then he had fallen into a deep depression until Clara came back on April 24. Also there was a rumor that Wiek Schumann, Clara’s father had been trying to separate them.During this time he had drowned in beer and champagne, but he also studied ardently counterpoints and string quartets of the classic era.
When Clara came back home, Robert became very happy and he started the year of chamber music. He composed 3 string quartets, Piano Quintet Op.44, and Piano Quartet in 1942. Piano Quintet Op.44 was worked from September 23, 1842 and completed on October 12.
We held a concert in Kawaguchi City Hatogaya civic center in the following program.
Handel Concerto Grosso in G major OP.6-1 HWV319
Vivaldi Concerto for 2 Cellos in G-minor RV531
Dvorak String Quintet in E-flat Op.97
Mozart Quintet in E flat for Piano and Winds, K452 (String Version)
Many of our members are always busy, so practice schedules are our chronic problem. However, we have achieved 49th periodical concert in about 5 years.
Being a group of average amateurs, we have devised a unique way of practice to do many concerts..
For example, we only had 2 rehearsals for Handel, Vivaldi and Dvorak. Mozart was only once. As there are audiences who always come to our concert, so we should keep good quality. We had a little bitter experience with low-quality performance in the past.
We found 2 tips. First, make your members understand that chamber music is a collection of solo. And if the quality of the parts is bad, the whole is never good.
So, I recommend members to play together regardless the form of ensemble whenever they are available. It a bit strange to play quintet by 3 people, but there are many things to do if the object is to improve individual’s quality. I also know that it is very hard and boring to practice inner voices and quality of ensemble really depends on them.
The second tip is for a leader to present clear interpretation of music so that everybody understands music clearly. Ordinary amateurs are usually unable to understand the real role of his part at certain phrase. Sometime he/she should support the melody, sometime a simple phrase could be a very important phrase if it is played properly. Therefore, it is important to say clearly “You play here like solo”
If your group has done my suggestion, you would agree that two rehearsals will do even for amateur groups, and what’s more, all of members will be well prepared as there are only two rehearsals.
We practiced the first quartet by Brahmas today. When I was unable to attend this quartet group last time, they practiced this work by 2nd violin, viola, and cello. Maybe because of their effort, we have successfully played this work from 1st movement to 4th movement without any trouble in ensemble.
For amateur quartets, Brahms No.1 is quite tough to play since it has several difficult points to play together. I would like to pick up some and offer you clues to enjoy playing.
The problem is cross rhythms between Cello and 2nd Violin. First and biggest problem may be a decision to practice this part by 2nd Violin and Cello. It looks a good and natural idea. If you use Metronome may be much better. I do not agree with this method because it eventually forces the first violin to follow 2nd Violin and cello which are not playing melody. So, how to practice this part? First violin and cello should practice to play snugly. Then, 2nd violin and viola join. This is quite simple and ordinary way. Here 2nd violin is just playing compensation rhythm.When a trouble occurs during the performance, 1st violin just look at cello and play with his rhythm, then you can avoid a break up.
In the actual performance, the most difficult part is the beginning.
Cello has a clue. Cello must have a good spirit of soloist here, and he or she should play with maximum confidence to play this simple piano passage. And first violin has to pick up the tempo of cello and put his note on the 4th eighth note of cello.
I know that it is very difficult in the stage performance for various conditions of the stage. But we should try this to be a good quartet.
The below is famous for its difficulty.
I think this portion may be one of the most difficult parts of all the quartets in classical and romantic area. Confusing thing in the confusing part is that more you have a good sense of harmony; more you get into a trouble.
If you play your melody comfortable on cello’s GisGisGis/AAA/HHH/CisCisCis. All wrong.
You should play your melody on GisGis/GisAA/AHH/HCisCis/Cis.
I remember that I practiced this passage for my pride in the past. What I did is that I played the cello part with piano and recorded it. And I practiced until I fully satisfied with the result.
When I achieved, I came to find the real and a bit strange beauty of this passage.
This string quartet requires a lots of ensemble technique based on the firm sense of rhythm and one of the best quartet to improve your quartet. Please challenge this beautiful work.
As a good player, everyone should know what kind of expression marks the composed used. I made a list of the strength and expression marks of String Quartets by Mozart. His notation is quite common for the early 13 quartets, but they became very complicated from K.387 "Spring" quartet in view of the common standard of his time. In General, Mozart's interests are focused on the area of the expression in middle volume tones rather than extending the total volume to fff or ppp .Especially marks like sf, fp mfp acting on one single note are frequently and carefully used after "Spring" quartet K.387, To interpret these marks finely will be the clue to understanding what Mozart requested in his music.
The below data is based on Baerenreiter's Urtext version (TP318 and TP140)
I have attached some pictures to show how Mozart used strength marks
|Composer||Title||Strength Marks||Expression Marks|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.80||f, p, fp|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.155||f, p,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.156||f, p,||cresc.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.157||f, p,||cresc.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.158||f, p, fp,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.159||f, p, fp,||fermata(mark)|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.160||f, p, fp,||cresc.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K,168||f, p, fp,||con sordino, cresc,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.169||f, p,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.170||f, sf, fp, p, pp||fermata(mark)|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.171||f, fp, p, sempre p,||con sordino,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.172||f, p,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.173||f, p,||decresc.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.387||f, p, sf, fp, pp, sfp ,||cresc, > calando, decresc.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.421||f, mf, fp, p, pp, sfp, sf, fp||sotto voce, sempre p,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.458||f, p, pp, sf, fp, sfp,||cresc. sempre p, staccato|
|Mozart||String Quartet||k.428||ff, f, p, sfp, fp,||cresc. decresc. ten.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.464||f, mf, p, sf,||cresc. decresc. ten. calando, sotto voce,|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.465||f, mf, p, pp, sf, sfp, fp,||cresc.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.499||f, p, pp, sf,||calando, fermata(mark),|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.575||f, mf, p, sf, sf, fp, mfp||sotto voce, dolce|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.589||f, mf, p, sf, sfp, mfp||sotto voce, cresc.|
|Mozart||String Quartet||K.590||f, p, sf, mfp,||cresc. fermata(mark)|
The below is ff that he used only once. It is written in the Menuetto of K.428 Es-dur. I feel like that he has no way to go to ff here.
Next example is the last part of Adagio in the 1st movement of K.465 "Dissonance”. I would like you to check your score that sf in measure 18,then, sfp and last measure with fermata is fp. This part is one of the difficult parts to play together. So don't be relieved for just passing here safely,please develop your image and interpret the meaning of these marks. I think it important to discuss with your quartet members.
This is the last movement of d-moll K.421, Strength marks of measure 90 are complicated; sfp for Vn1, sf for Vn2, fp for Va and sf for Vc.You may feel what Mozart is trying to do, but you have to decide only one interpretation when you play. Therein lies the beauty of the musical interpretation.
While I am examining the Dynamics and Expression marks for the different purpose, I found it interesting as a sample of italian music of Mozart era. it is Boccherini's Six String Quinet in IMSPL. It looks similar to the Notation of Mozart
but differ in various ways.
Here are the Dynamics and Expression Marks of Boccherini in the first Violin Part.
AdMaestro in self-flattery, There are amazing effect. That's because playing admaestro is to become a conductor.
Beethoven Symphony No. 3 "hero" is edited by one beat per measure. Everybody can begin this great work with delight., It is really easy.But after the main theme, there are some measures that has no sound as a first beat, You have to point the first beat to the orchestra . This is the beginning of trouble if you have not good sense of metrical sense.
Don't worry. If you try several times consulting with a score, you will find yourself much improved in metrical sense.
Give it a try!
I have pressed down the Submit button of the Intel Dashboard today. My App is AdMaestro PC Version. The Challenge began last July for Idea Competition and I have selected one of the finalists in October, and Due date of the final submission is 15th February. My app is for conducting software named AdMaestro. Its basic feature is to change the tempo of commercial CDs by conducting gestures. You will feel New York Phil harmony is following you.
Our latest version has speech commands to start playing and a gesture command to stop playing. Due to these simple commands, you can use AdMaestro in the actual rehearsals for string orchestras and choirs.
I am very happy I could submit my offer; I will go to APA (Amateur Players Association tomorrow to enjoy Mozart, Reich and Haydn.