Franck Violin Sonata 3rd Movement

Third Movement: Recitativo – Fantasia

Introduction by piano presents the following 4 measure phrase.
Fig.1 Mes.1

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This phrase is extracted from the first movement M1, but the character of this phrase resembles the one from measure 59 of the first movement. It sounds unfriendly, and suggesting some depressing feelings. Then a recitativo by violin follows.


Fig.2 Mes.5
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The motive, ces’-a-b at measure 7 is derived from mirrored A-c-H that is the major motive of 3rd movement. This motive is used in measures 46, 49, 52 by the unison of piano and violin. Some violinist emphasizes ces'-a-b when they play the recitativo. Maybe they are not playing by their liking, but want listeners to understand that this phrase plays important roles in this movement.
Fig.3 Mes.11
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The above phrase is often played just smoothly, but it is very beautiful and impressive especially when minor third turns out major third, it naturally reminds us of the 1st movement. Thus, this phrase should be regarded as a recitativo for the piano. This phrase is repeated twice while changing keys.

Reflecting Molto Lent part, shown in Fig.4, follows and the first part of Recitativo comes to an end.

Fig.4 Mes.17

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After the first section, the second section which has a climax begins by the introduction transposed by fifth above the original and the recitativo by violin follows. From measure 32, the violin plays a melody in Fig 5 freely that also comes from M1 of 1st movement.

Fig.5 Mes.32
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Accompanying piano plays continuous descending half tones which are traditionally understood to show an ominous mood.

And the piano starts to play the introduction parts as shown in Fig.1. This introduction is enforced by “poco a poco cresc.” and make the violin changes its character. Then, piano and violin reach the climax. The motive ces'-a-b shown in Fig.2 is played very effectively by 3 voices of the piano part and the violin in unison. This climax connects to “a tempo Moderato” at measure 52 with the motive on fis-cis sharp-dis.

Fantasia begins from measure 53 as shown in Fig. 6. Here the violin plays a beautiful phrase first. The phrase sounds quiet and meditative, but surprisingly, this is a modified phrase of furious primary theme of 2nd movement.
Fig.6 Mes.53
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The following phrase shown Fig.7 is the most important one which will surpass M1 in the 4th movement.  Indication of “dociss. espress. tranquillo” to this phrase show how the composer regards this phrase. This phrase has apparently independent from M1 and other derived motives. And this phrase eventually overwhelms M1.

Fig.7 Mes.59
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This phrase proceeds with the accompaniment of triplets by piano which also includes the motive of 2nd movement. For example, d’ (3rd beat of measure 63), e’ g’ and fis’ (1st beat and 3rd beat of measure 64) make d'-e'-g'-fis' 
and a phrase shown Fig.8 appears to make a climax of 3rd movement.

 

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This phrase is also made from M1 transposing the first note an octave downward. It is very impressive because the phrase starts in a challenging and determined mood but have a peaceful resolution in the end by changing keys. After this phrase Fig.7 follows, and the phrase comes back with “f molto largamente e dramatico” and ends with sempre fff.

The phrase shown Fig.4 comes back and closes this movement as if it agreed the change of main theme from M1 of 1st movement to the phrase shown in Fig.7.

 

Music Analysis

3rd Movement

           
 

Introduction of Motive

1

 

4

4

M1

 

Recitativo1

5

 

10

6

M1

 

Recitativo2

11

 

16

6

M1

 

Recitativo3

17

 

21

5

M1

 

Introduction of Motive

22

 

25

4

 
 

Recitativo1

26

 

31

6

 
 

Passage1

32

 

40

9

Free Passage

 

Introduction of Motive

41

 

44

4

 
 

Recitativo1

45

 

52

8

 
 

Theme of 2 mov

53

 

58

6

M2

 

Theme of Fantasie

59

 

70

12

Basic Motive 3  M3

 

Passage2

71

 

80

10

Important Phrase M1

 

Theme of Fantasie

81

 

92

12

 
 

Passage3

93

 

100

8

Free Melody + M1

 

Passage2

101

 

110

10

M1

 

Recitativo3

111

 

117

7

 

 

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